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8 Reasons Why Jeepney Modernization in the Cordillera WON'T Work (Yet)

Here are 8 reasons why jeepney modernization faces a roadblock in the Cordillera region, along with actionable solutions.

 |  20 min read

Delve into the 8 key reasons why jeepney modernization hits roadblocks in the Cordillera. Gain insights into the challenges and explore strategies for overcoming them.

Jeepneys, those vibrant and iconic symbols of Filipino culture, have long been the backbone of public transportation in the Philippines. However, amidst concerns over emissions, safety, and efficiency, the government has embarked on a modernization drive aimed at phasing out old jeepneys in favor of newer, more environmentally friendly models.

Understanding Jeepney Modernization

The Public Utility Vehicle Modernization Program (PUVMP), commonly referred to as jeepney modernization, represents a comprehensive overhaul of the Philippines' iconic jeepney transportation system. It aims to address various issues such as environmental pollution, road safety, and passenger comfort by phasing out old, dilapidated jeepneys and replacing them with modern, eco-friendly vehicles.

At the core of jeepney modernization is the transition to Euro 4-compliant and Philippine National Standards (PNS)-compliant engines, or alternatively, vehicles powered by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), electronic, or hybrid engines. These modern engines produce fewer harmful emissions compared to older models and adhere to strict environmental standards.

In addition to environmental considerations, jeepney modernization also focuses on enhancing passenger safety and convenience. Modernized jeepneys are equipped with features such as GPS tracking systems, CCTV cameras, and electronic fare collection systems. These technological upgrades not only improve the overall passenger experience but also help in monitoring and managing the fleet more efficiently.

Furthermore, jeepney modernization initiatives often include measures to improve the livelihoods of operators and drivers. By providing financial assistance, training programs, and access to credit facilities, the government aims to support operators in transitioning to modernized vehicles and adapting to the changing landscape of public transportation.

Overall, jeepney modernization represents a multifaceted approach to transforming the country's transportation sector. While the transition may pose challenges in the short term, the long-term benefits, including reduced pollution, improved safety, and enhanced efficiency, make it a crucial step towards sustainable urban mobility in the Philippines.

While this initiative holds promise for improving transportation systems nationwide, it's important to note that we're not against it. As the child of jeepney operators myself, I understand the importance of modernizing our transportation systems. However, before fully embracing jeepney modernization in the Cordillera, we need to address several key issues standing in the way of its success.

8 Key Issues Why Jeepney Modernization Won't Work

1. Poor Research and Lack of Consultation

Let's talk about why jeepney modernization in the Cordillera isn't off to a great start. It all boils down to one thing: poor planning and not listening to the people it affects the most.

The Department of Transportation (DOTr) had this grand plan to roll out modernization starting from Metro Manila and then spreading it across the country. Sounds good on paper, right? But here's the kicker: they didn't think about how different regions have different needs.

Take the Cordillera region, for example. We're talking about mountainous roads that need special consideration. But did the DOTr think about that? Nope. They went with a one-size-fits-all approach, which just doesn't cut it here.

And to top it all off, they didn't bother to ask the people who actually live and work here what they think. No consultation, no engagement. Just a bunch of decisions made behind closed doors.

So it's no wonder that jeepney modernization is facing an uphill battle in the Cordillera. Without doing their homework and listening to the folks on the ground, the DOTr's plans are destined to fall flat.

In the next sections, we'll dig deeper into how these missteps are affecting the chances of jeepney modernization actually working in the Cordillera.

2. Bad Implementation

Let's talk about the nitty-gritty of jeepney modernization in the Cordillera. It's not just about having a good idea; it's about making it happen. And boy, are there hurdles.

First off, the government seems to be in a rush. They're pushing the modernization agenda without giving folks enough time to catch their breath. Suddenly, jeepney operators are expected to follow all these new rules and get shiny new vehicles, and they're left scratching their heads, wondering how they'll manage it all.

Then there's this whole thing about forming a Cooperative to get a franchise for the new jeepneys. It's like herding cats trying to get all these individual operators to band together. And once they do, they're thrown into this maze of decision-making and resource juggling that they're not prepared for.

And let's not forget about the lack of training and guidance. Operators are basically given a crash course on forming a coop and then left to fend for themselves. It's like being thrown into the deep end without learning how to swim.

And the cherry on top? Securing funding and making sure everything's up to snuff with regulations. It's a logistical nightmare that's just waiting to derail the whole modernization train.

So yeah, unless there's some serious planning and support behind this modernization push, it's bound to hit some roadblocks along the way.

3. Road Challenges

Navigating the Cordillera's roads presents significant hurdles for modern jeepneys. Unlike the smooth streets of urban areas, our region's roads are winding, narrow, and often unpaved, requiring vehicles to be specially adapted to handle these conditions.

Steep Slopes and Sharp Turns

The Cordillera is full of steep slopes and sharp turns, which make it tough for regular vehicles, let alone modern jeepneys, to get around safely. To handle these tricky twists and turns, modern jeepneys need strong engines and good brakes. Otherwise, they might struggle to stay on course and could put passengers and drivers at risk.

Unpredictable Weather

The weather in the Cordillera can be unpredictable, especially during the rainy season. Heavy rainfall can lead to landslides and erosion, making the roads even more challenging to navigate. Modern jeepneys need to be ready for whatever the weather throws at them, with features like tough tires and sturdy suspension systems to keep them steady on wet and slippery roads.

Road Maintenance Challenges

Keeping the roads in the Cordillera in good shape is an ongoing challenge. With rough surfaces and frequent landslides, the roads need constant repairs and maintenance. Modern jeepneys have to be built tough to handle these rugged conditions, with strong frames and sturdy parts that can withstand the wear and tear of rough roads.

Addressing Road Problems First

Before we start thinking about fancy new vehicles, we need to focus on fixing the roads themselves. Investing in better road design, drainage systems, and stabilization measures can make a big difference. By improving the roads, we can make them safer and more suitable for modern jeepneys, ensuring a smoother ride for everyone.

Innovative Vehicle Solutions

Once we've tackled the road challenges, we can turn our attention to building better jeepneys. Working with local experts and communities, we can develop specialized vehicles that are perfect for the Cordillera's unique terrain. With the right features and designs, these modern jeepneys can provide safe, efficient, and comfortable transportation for everyone in the region.

And just so you know, I'm not just making these things up. Jose Bienvenido Manuel Biona, a mechanical engineering professor at De La Salle University and executive director of the Electric Vehicle Association of the Philippines (EVAP), shared his insights after driving through three routes in Baguio. He recorded the engine stresses and long travel duration endured by traditional jeepneys, concluding, "I would not want to risk running electric jeepneys here."

He also highlighted that an e-jeepney costs over P2 million, but operators would need up to P3 million to include modifications for mountain road use, which leads us to the next issue: cost.

Electric vehicle worth P6.5 million Photo: BC - PIO

4. Modern Jeepneys Are Expensive

Let's talk money. Modernizing jeepneys in the Cordillera comes with a hefty price tag, even with government subsidies in place. Operators need to form cooperatives, and that's just the start. They'll have to take out loans to cover the steep costs of modern vehicles, which can range from ₱1.4 million to ₱2.4 million, with additional expenses for upgrades reaching up to ₱1 million.

Financial Strain

In our theoretical scenario, acquiring a modern jeepney with upgraded capabilities suited to the rugged terrain of the Cordillera region would cost approximately ₱3 million for a single operator through the cooperative.

With a 7-year repayment period and a 6% annual interest rate, that would translate to a monthly loan payment of roughly ₱40,000.

It's important to emphasize that this calculation is a simplified thought experiment to illustrate the financial commitment involved in acquiring a modern jeepney, and actual costs may vary.

Daily Juggle

To cover these loans, operators and drivers need to pull in around ₱1,666.67 per operating day, factoring in the fixed salary for drivers-let's say ₱1,000 per day. This amounts to a total of about ₱2,666.67 needed per operating day. It's a daily financial juggle based on an operating schedule of approximately 24 days per month, considering a standard six-day workweek for jeepney operators and drivers.

Additional Expenses

But wait, there's more. Beyond loan payments and salaries, there are other costs to consider. Fuel, maintenance, permits, taxes, insurance, association fees, and miscellaneous expenses-all of these need to be factored in. These additional expenses can quickly add up, making financial management a critical aspect of jeepney modernization.

Considering this comprehensive list of additional expenses, our daily target to cover the loan and all operational costs is approximately ₱4,000 to ₱6,000 per operating day, based on a 7-year loan term.

It's clear: modernizing jeepneys isn't just about buying new vehicles. It's about navigating a complex financial landscape and making smart decisions for long-term sustainability. By understanding the true costs involved, operators can chart a course for a smoother journey ahead.

5. What Happens to Jeepney Drivers and Operators?

So, with this whole jeepney modernization thing, some drivers and operators are wondering: what's in it for us?

Earning a Living

For the folks who hop on board with the modernization plan, there could be some perks. Instead of hustling for boundary fares all day, they might get steady salaries, plus sweet benefits like health insurance and maybe even a retirement plan. It's like leveling up in the job market.

Left Out in the Cold

But what about the ones who don't-or can't-get with the program? Well, life might get a bit rocky. Without those shiny new jeeps and cooperative deals, they could struggle to keep up. As more and more modernized jeeps hit the streets, the old-school ones might start feeling left out.

Facing the Ax

And let's be real: if there's less demand for the old-style jeeps, some drivers and operators might find themselves out of a job. It's tough news for folks who've been in the game for years, and it could shake up their whole livelihoods.

In the end, while jeepney modernization has its perks, it's also got some folks worried about what it means for their future. Making sure everyone gets a fair shot in the new system will be key to keeping the peace on the roads.

Dangwa Bus

6. Fate of the Old Jeepneys

Alright, let's talk about what's gonna happen to our trusty old jeepneys. You see, up here in the Cordillera, these jeepneys aren't just vehicles; they're part of our identity. And you know what? Most of them are still in pretty good shape. They've been chugging along the mountain roads, come rain or shine, for years. But now, with these fancy new jeeps on the scene, it's like the old ones might be out of a job soon. So, what's the plan for them?

Scrapping them?

One possibility is scrapping them, tossing them aside like yesterday's news. But think about it: that's a whole lot of metal heading to the junkyard. And what about the pollution? It's not exactly good for the environment, you know?

Giving them a New Gig

But hey, maybe there's another way. What if we repurpose these old jeeps? Give them a new lease on life, you know? They might not be ferrying passengers around anymore, but they could still have a role to play. Maybe they become part of our local events or tourist attractions. Or maybe they find a new purpose in our communities, like helping out during emergencies or festivals. There's gotta be a way to keep these old-timers around, right?

And you know what? This raises some serious questions about the whole modernization thing. If our old jeeps can still do the job and find new ways to be useful, do we really need to replace them with shiny new models? It's something we've gotta think about as we decide the future of our transportation system.

Holding onto our Heritage

At the end of the day, we've gotta think about what these jeepneys mean to us. They're not just vehicles; they're a part of our heritage. So whatever we decide to do with them, let's make sure we're honoring that legacy. Whether it's preserving them for future generations or giving them a new job to do, let's keep our culture rolling along with our old jeepneys.

7. Impact on Commuters

Alright, so we've talked a lot about operators and drivers, but what about the folks who actually ride these jeepneys every day? Yeah, I'm talking about us-the commuters.

Comfort and Space

So, you'd think these modern jeepneys would be all comfy and spacious, right? Nope. It's more like being crammed in a can of sardines, especially during rush hour. There's just not enough room, especially if you've got bags or if you're not so tall. And forget about finding a seat if you're lucky enough to get on one.

Safety and Accessibility Challenges

Safety's a big concern too. Like, have these new jeeps even been crash-tested? And what about folks with disabilities? Getting in and out can be a real hassle, especially when you can't even reach the handles overhead. It's like they didn't even think about people like us when they designed these things.

Fare Hikes

Here's the kicker: with all these so-called upgrades, you'd think fares would stay the same, right? Nope again. They're talking about jacking up the prices just because they put in air conditioning and fancy safety features. I mean, sure, that sounds nice, but who's gonna pay for it? Us, that's who.

Route Changes

And get this, they're messing with the routes too. Like, we've been taking the same jeep for years, and now they want to change it up? It's gonna be a pain figuring out new routes and schedules, especially when we're used to the old ones.

Overall Impact

So, what's the bottom line? Well, we're not sure yet. Sure, they say all this modernization stuff is supposed to make things better, but from where we're sitting, it just seems like more hassle than it's worth. We're all for improvements, but they gotta make sure they're actually helping us commuters out, not just making things fancier for the sake of it.

8. Infrastructure and Maintenance Challenges

Alright, let's talk about the nitty-gritty stuff that keeps these modern jeepneys running smoothly in the Cordillera.

Keeping Them Rolling

First up, maintenance. These new jeepneys are a bit more high-tech than the old ones, which means they need some extra TLC to stay in tip-top shape. But here's the thing: do we have enough folks who know their way around these modern machines? And where do we go when they need fixing? Finding qualified mechanics and accessible repair shops could be a real headache for operators.

Powering Up

Now, let's talk electricity. Electric jeepneys are all the rage, but they're useless without a place to juice up. Imagine being stranded in the middle of nowhere with a dead battery-talk about a nightmare! But setting up charging stations across the region isn't exactly a walk in the park, especially in remote areas where power supply is spotty. Without a reliable charging network, electric jeepneys could be dead in the water.

Keeping the Wheels Turning

Day-to-day operations ain't easy either. These modern jeepneys need constant love and attention to keep 'em running smoothly. But do we have enough support in place to handle the daily grind? From routine maintenance to unexpected breakdowns, operators need reliable help to keep the wheels turning for commuters. Without it, we could be in for a bumpy ride.

Getting What We Need

Last but not least, let's talk about getting our hands on the goods. Buying new vehicles and spare parts sounds simple enough, right? Wrong. It's like navigating a maze of suppliers, manufacturers, and delivery folks. And with the Cordillera's rugged terrain and wonky infrastructure, getting what we need can be a real challenge. Any hiccups along the way could spell trouble for operators and commuters alike.

So, there you have it. Tackling these infrastructure and maintenance challenges is key to making jeepney modernization work in the Cordillera. It's gonna take a village to get it done, but if we roll up our sleeves and work together, we can pave the way for a smoother ride ahead.


Alright, let's delve into potential solutions to address the challenges outlined in the previous sections and pave the way for successful jeepney modernization in the Cordillera.

1. Tailored Approach

Instead of adopting a one-size-fits-all approach, the government should tailor its modernization efforts to the unique needs and conditions of the Cordillera region. This means conducting thorough research and consultation with local stakeholders to understand the specific challenges and opportunities present in mountainous terrain.

2. Infrastructure Investment

Prioritize investments in infrastructure, including road improvements, charging stations for electric vehicles, and maintenance facilities. By enhancing the region's transportation infrastructure, we can create a more conducive environment for modernized jeepneys to operate safely and efficiently.

3. Financial Support

Provide financial support and incentives to help jeepney operators and drivers transition to modernized vehicles. This could include subsidies for vehicle purchases, low-interest loans, and grants for cooperative development. By easing the financial burden, we can encourage greater participation in the modernization process.

4. Training and Capacity Building

Offer training programs and capacity-building initiatives to equip operators, drivers, and mechanics with the skills and knowledge needed to operate and maintain modernized jeepneys effectively. This could include technical training on vehicle maintenance, financial management workshops, and customer service training to enhance the passenger experience.

5. Innovation and Collaboration

Encourage innovation and collaboration among local stakeholders, including government agencies, private companies, and community organizations. By fostering partnerships and leveraging local expertise, we can develop innovative solutions tailored to the unique challenges of the Cordillera region.

6. Cultural Preservation

Integrate cultural preservation efforts into jeepney modernization initiatives to honor the heritage and traditions associated with traditional jeepneys. This could involve incorporating indigenous designs and artwork into modernized vehicles, as well as supporting cultural events and initiatives that celebrate the region's identity.

7. Continuous Evaluation and Adaptation

Establish mechanisms for continuous evaluation and adaptation of modernization strategies based on feedback from stakeholders and real-world performance data. This iterative approach will allow us to identify and address challenges as they arise, ensuring that modernization efforts remain responsive to the evolving needs of the community.

8. Upgrading Traditional Jeepneys

An alternative solution to the challenges of jeepney modernization in the Cordillera is to upgrade traditional jeepneys with compatible engines and safety features. This approach offers a cost-effective way to enhance the performance and environmental sustainability of existing vehicles while preserving their cultural heritage.

Cost-Effective Solutions

By retrofitting traditional jeepneys with modern engines and safety features, operators can achieve significant improvements in fuel efficiency, emissions reduction, and passenger safety without the need for expensive vehicle replacements. This approach is particularly beneficial for cooperatives with limited budgets, allowing them to extend the lifespan of their existing fleet while meeting regulatory requirements.

Preservation of Cultural Heritage

Upgrading traditional jeepneys also helps preserve the cultural heritage associated with these iconic vehicles. Rather than phasing out older models, this approach honors the history and significance of traditional jeepneys in Filipino culture while modernizing them to meet contemporary standards.

Sustainable Transition

By offering a sustainable transition pathway for operators and drivers, the upgrade of traditional jeepneys ensures continuity of livelihoods and reduces the social and economic disruptions associated with rapid modernization. It allows operators to adapt to changing regulatory requirements while maintaining operational continuity and community cohesion.

Localized Solutions

Furthermore, upgrading traditional jeepneys can be tailored to the specific needs and conditions of the Cordillera region. Local cooperatives can collaborate with mechanics, engineers, and government agencies to develop customized retrofitting solutions that address the unique challenges of mountainous terrain and rugged road conditions.

Collaborative Efforts

This approach requires collaboration between government agencies, private sector stakeholders, and community organizations to provide technical support, funding assistance, and regulatory guidance. By working together, we can ensure the successful implementation of retrofitting initiatives and maximize the benefits for all stakeholders involved.

Incorporating traditional jeepney upgrades into the modernization strategy offers a pragmatic and inclusive approach to transportation reform in the Cordillera. By harnessing the resilience and ingenuity of local communities, we can achieve sustainable mobility solutions that balance the preservation of cultural heritage with the imperatives of environmental sustainability and public safety.

By implementing these solutions in a collaborative and holistic manner, we can overcome the challenges of jeepney modernization in the Cordillera and create a more sustainable and inclusive transportation system for the region. Let's work together to build a brighter future for all stakeholders involved.

Toward a Better Ride

Alright, so here's the deal: we've got some serious work to do if we want to get jeepney modernization right in the Cordillera. But hey, it's not all doom and gloom. With a bit of creativity and a whole lot of teamwork, we can turn things around and pave the way for a smoother ride ahead.

So, what's the plan? Well, first off, let's ditch the one-size-fits-all approach and start tailoring our solutions to fit the unique needs of the Cordillera. That means listening to the folks on the ground, figuring out what they need, and working together to make it happen.

Next up, we've got to get serious about investing in infrastructure. I'm talking better roads, charging stations for electric vehicles, and maintenance facilities that actually work. Without the right infrastructure in place, all our fancy new jeepneys won't get very far.

And let's not forget about the folks who are actually driving these things. We need to give them the support and training they need to do their jobs well, whether it's learning how to maintain their vehicles or managing their finances.

But hey, it's not all about the nuts and bolts. We've also got to think about the bigger picture, like preserving the culture and heritage that makes the Cordillera so special. That means finding ways to upgrade traditional jeepneys without losing sight of what makes them unique.

So, are we up for the challenge? You bet we are. With a bit of teamwork and a whole lot of determination, we can make jeepney modernization work in the Cordillera. So let's roll up our sleeves and get to work. After all, a smoother ride is just around the corner.

Your Turn: What's Your Take?

Now that you've heard our thoughts on jeepney modernization in the Cordillera, we want to know what you think. Are we on the right track with our solutions, or do you see things differently?

Share Your Perspective:

  1. What's your take on the challenges we've highlighted?
  2. Do you agree with our proposed solutions, or do you have better ideas?
  3. What issues or solutions did we miss that are crucial to the Cordillera's unique situation?

We're all in this together, and your insights matter. Drop your thoughts in the comments below and let's kickstart a conversation about the future of jeepney transportation in the Cordillera!

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