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Rock Tomb Science

Presumed an Ethnoscience, man-made warrior rock tombs serve proof of the theorem of the Theorem of Holes, which defines the elasto-plastic behaviour.

Warrior tombs are man-made structures on rock formations crafted to protect human remains. Some warriors are in mummified form
Warrior tombs are man-made structures on rock formations crafted to protect human remains. Some warriors are in mummified form

This paper posits a mathematical equation [1] as the sole indicator of an ethnogenic statement [2]. Using material responses to stress in structured quantitative observations objectively and singularly, to authenticate rock mechanics [3] in warrior rock tombs; consequently defining an ethnoscience [4] integral to the identity and tradition of the highland ethnic groups.

Presumed an Ethnoscience, it is thought these man-made rock tombs serve proof of the 'Theorem of holes' [5], discerned through generations of observation of the natural environment. The theorem of holes articulates that rock defects render built-in safety valves of self-adaptation to any excess of stress to either one of three mechanisms: crack opening, squeezing and slip on joints. Additionally, rock dynamic behaviour is limited by the Tresca law and Coulomb law.

Ethos meaning character in Greek, describes the beliefs or ideals that characterise a community [6]. Warrior is defined as a brave, experienced fighter particularly in former times [7]. For the Philippines northern tribes, the warrior was regarded superior with elite social status. A warrior is expected to possess innate discipline to exert both mentally and physically in protection of life and territory. The assertion was territory is ancestral land and anent ancestry; thus sacrosant.

Tombs are man-made structures on rock formations crafted to protect the remains of warriors. In some locations, the remains of the warrior is mummified.

Tradition states the Apo Anno extraordinary intricate tattoos are indicative of supreme warrior status in classic underworld epic of a demi-god.
Tradition states the Apo Anno extraordinary intricate tattoos are indicative of supreme warrior status in classic underworld epic of a demi-god.

This research is lodged at the University of Melbourne Department of Infrastructure Enginèering. The document is to provide scientific and mathematical interpretation of the built structure of ancient tradition----of what is essentially a scientific point of view. Discerning the ethnoscience informs identity, establishes heritage science and supports the community economic engine.

Therefore one objective is to successfully define an ethnogenic statement by studying the rock tomb, where little information exists. Specifically, in the rock tomb of the great warrior Apo Anno.

Rock Mechanics Rock mechanics understands the responses of rock to applied disturbances, such as the faults, folds and fractures that develop over time [8]. Considered here are man-induced disturbances in structural context, set against the cleverness of design that has withstood ground squeezing or subsidence, or possible rock failure. That by itself constitutes the ethnogenic statement for tradition and identity unique to the ethnic group.

Rock depth is exposed to stress consequential the weight of the superimposing strata and from locked in tensions of tectonic origin. In the prehistoric build for rock tomb opening, the stress region is locally disrupted, thus a new set of tensions induced in the rock, particularly surrounding the opening. Such skilfulness of build to last many, many decades evidences certain mathematical keen.

The methodology is a straightforward application of the theorem of holes. Rock defects render as built-in safety valves of self-adaptation to any excess of stress to either one of three mechanisms: crack opening, squeezing and slip on joints; in dynamic behaviour of principal stresses and maximum in-plane shear stress across the warrior rock tomb limited by the Tresca law and Coulomb law.

Joint surfaces are initially assumed to be perfectly planar for most joints or faults, but not for all surfaces on the limbs of folds. The perfect planarity is in order to describe the rock morphology by linear vector equations. Then strength properties for the discontinuities are introduced to define frictional resistance otherwise accumulation of strain and stress within rocks.

For this specific setting, the cavern tomb is hallowed site undisturbed as it is the final resting place of the great tribe warrior, Apo Anno, in mummified condition. By so the examination of this structural design is delimited to the survey of rock cavern parameters to derive vector equations for the construct of Proof of Theorem. Only light ground investigations are permitted apart the survey: Ground investigations for ground subsidence, squeezing ground, and potential rock failure primarily through desk work calculations.

State of the Art Scientific literature on the rock tombs are scarce and without scientific descriptive or explanation. The significance of this work is of utmost importance for yshontog scientific discourse of Ethnocentrism [9]. This paper should form the first of its kind that can be replicated in other regions without.

Mummification of tribe warriors alongside the traditional construct of rock tombs is part of the ancient practice. These have been hardly documented or studied for two reasons. First is the cavern tomb constitutes sacred ground, as it is the resting place of an important person of exceptional social status given very high regard. Thus it is rather overwhelming, if not forbidden to intrude upon such space. Second, is the highland tribes, or pagans of La Montanosa [10] were never under Spanish slavery of the Philippines Islands for 342 long years. All ygolottes came under Government only in 1907 and were beforehand excluded as part of Philippines subjugation in 1565. Thus tribe history is in oral; mostly in fascinating epic chants.

The occurrence of the ecotourism industry [11] has introduced some forms of visitation to these rock tombs; making it all the more noteworthy to have good scientific explanation of the specific site. An assertion by tradition is that Apo Anno whose extraordinary intricate tattoos are indicative of supreme warrior status in classic underworld epic of a demi-god.

Discerning Ethnoscience Ethnicity has reference to inhabitation in a particular place that has shaped traditional lifeway [12] in the grapple with nature of what scientists recognise as research [13]. Tradition construes adaptation that rely on practical observations of the natural surroundings as an ethnoscience [14], enhanced by generations of learning through thoughtful stories and demonstration, for which one conforms modes of endurance and subsistence [15]. Survival or extinction -constitutes the incontestable rudiments of traditional knowledge [16] clearly in contrast conventional forms of competence, measured through objective tests of structured ideas of what a person should know [17].

An Ethnogenic Statement stays artefact for the continuance of tradition; enduring through generations of assimilation and colonial conventions of dismissive, for which ethnicity inaugurates identity [18]. A deepened appreciation of ethnicity predisposes considerable understanding of cultural diverse [19] without having to share in the same history [20].  The naked awareness of ethnicity has contemporary significance influencing policy of otherness [21].

By analysis of the principal stresses and maximum in-plane shear stress across the warrior rock tomb: (a) Theorem of Holes defines the elasto-plastic behaviour limited by Tresca law, which explains the deformation inside the annulus that protects the elastic zone around from any excess of stress. (b)Theorem of Holes defines elasto-plastic behaviour limited by Coulomb law, which explains when the rock strength is too low; a pressure inside the hole may prevent the tangential stress [22] to overpass this strength. (c) Theorem of Holes proves that inside a highly stressed medium, the stresses around a cavern walls, both the stress field and the medium are isotropic.

Fundamentally the analysis looks into geometry and stability using vector methods. Vectors allow for kinematic and static equilibrium [23] analysis under rock weight, friction and forces applied. The methodology can extend to calculation on the resultant forces from weight, water and inertia. In the analysis of equations, this study adopts the conventional y is north and x is east, into a system of orthogonality [24], wherein these vector or complex vectors are completely independent of the other.


Notes [1] Math Open Reference (2011) An equation is a mathematical statement that two things are equal. It consists of two expressions, one on each side of an equals sign

[2] The Free Dictionary: The study of the origin of distinctive groups or tribes

[3] Lagace PA (2007) Morhs' circle, MIT Materials and Structures

[4] McGee JR and Warms RL (2004) A discipline concerned with the cultural knowledge and classification systems in a given society of what native people know about the world in contrast the  biased toward Western conceptual classifications

[5] Duffaut, P (2007) Engineering of large ad deep rock caverns for physics research. French Committee on Rock Mechanics based on Volume (2) Applications

[6] https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ethos

[7]https://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/warrior

[8] Krinitzsky EL and Krinitzsky EK (1947) A fault-plane Cavern

[9]Ankerl G (2000). Coexisting contemporary civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western; a Scientific Essay

[10] The ygolottes were far more organised with one unified collective expression: No loyalty to the crown of Spain et al Governor Primo de Rivers, back then characterised as blasphemy to the church (Taft Commission Report 1900). That is, over the period of colonisation the ygolottes thus lived in total liberty and without any subjection at all. Regardless descriptive our tribe leaders might have been scruffily clothed, the naked truth is that the tribes formed highly organised communities defending territory as the genuine form of empowerment without need of intervention, dubbed as hostilities of the mountaineers against military expeditions in 1591, 1608, 1635, 1663 and the massacre of the Spanish Kiangan Garrison in the 1880s (Scott, 1970).

[11] Alimondo L (2019) Apo Anno sacred park to rise in Buguias, Philippines

[12] Barnhardt R (1991) Higher education in the fourth world: Indigenous people take control. Canadian Journal of Native Education 18(2), Vancouver University of British Columbia

[13] Kawagley A & Barnhardt R (2007) Education indigenous to place: Western science meets native reality. Alaska Native Knowledge Network

[14] Nader L (1996) Naked Science, New York Routledge

[15] Bielawski E (1990) Cross-cultural epistemology: Cultural readaptation through the pursuit of knowledge. Edmonton: University of Alberta

[16] Indigenous Survival International (1991) Statement on Indigenous peoples and conservation, Arctic Environment: Indigenous Perspectives

[17] Copenhagen: International work Group for Indigenous Affairs

[18] Knudtson P and Suzuki D (1992) Wisdom of the Elders, Toronto: Stoddart Publishing Ltd

[19] McGrath A and Jebb M (2015) Long history, deep time: Deepening histories of place. ANU Press Canberra

[20] Pemberton K (2010) Name-change ceremony symbolically cuts Haida Gwaii's link to colonial past, ´Vancouver Sun

[21] Indigenous Survival International (1991) Statement on Indigenous peoples and conservation, Arctic Environment: Indigenous Perspectives. Copenhagen: International work Group for Indigenous Affairs

[22] The wall of the cavern under pressure is subjected to tensile forces across its longitudinal and transverse sections

[23] Static equilibrium is a state where bodies are at rest, and dynamic equilibrium is a state where bodies are moving at a constant velocity. In both cases the sum of the forces acting on them is zero

[24] Refers to perspective lines drawn diagonally along parallel lines, and are orthogonal, or perpendicular to one another



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