Ethnic intellectual systems have reference to the habitation in a particular place that has shaped traditional lifeway (Barnhardt, 2019) in the grapple with nature of what scientists recognise as research (Kawagley, 2007). An ethic group construes adaptations that rely on practical observations of the natural surroundings as an intellectual system (Nader, 1996), enhanced by generations of learning through thoughtful story and demonstration. For which, one conforms modes of endurance and subsistence (Bielawski, 1990). Survival or extinction-constitutes the incontestable rudiments of any Ethnic Intellectual System, clearly in contrast conventional forms of competence, measured through objective tests of structured ideas of what a person should know.
Ybaloi traditions and intellectual systems have underpinnings alike the many other indigenous peoples; in a rather unique fusion of animism, kinship and ancestral worship.
The concept of the spirit world is defined as the world or realm inhabited by spirits in either good or evil manifestations. It is thought that the spirit world serves an external environment for souls that originate from the mortal life (Hill, 1918, p.211).
On the other hand, the mortal world refers the human being, therefore grows, ages then dies; definitely beneath the spirit world. Then there is animism, which is the assertion that all natural elements within the ancestral domain possess spirit-therefore special connectivity exists (Hornborg, 2006).
Strength of Ancestry is the assertion that a person, who upon death becomes part of the spirit world; by so connects the mortal world and the spirit world, specifically the same bloodline from beginning to end. Therefore the ancestor is the medium of communication to gods in the spirit world-becoming a figure of authority over living descendants by way of sanctions or endowment or retribution, which explains the need to propitiate an ancestor through elaborate rituals alongside traditional kinship practice (The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2019).
Amidst such assertion, the Ybaloi cognizance of homeland is that-Ancestral land is sacrosanct as it is anent ancestry. The concept of ancestral domain is an assertion comparable the cultural landscape for the reason that the homelands connote sacred implications as these connect with ancestral spirits (Gibson, 2006). Ancestral domain is the culturally appropriate approach for understanding the Ybaloi cultural landscape, as an indication of intimacy with the natural environment, especially for utilisation approaches to be effective (Semken, 1997). Ancestral land differs from homeland which simply means a place where one was raised and grew up as a child. A tribesperson raised elsewhere still has first right over ancestral land by consanguinity, as direct tangible attachments with own ancestor spirits.
It is important to note that prior existence of Ybaloi ethnic intellectual systems had been recorded and recognised in the Taft Commission Report on the Philippines, which finds the Ygolottes ethnic group to be far more organised with one unified collective expression: No loyalty to the crown of Spain et al Governor Primo de Rivers, back then characterised as blasphemy to the church (United States, 1901). Ygolottes came under the Philippine Government only in 1907 and excluded in the subjugation of the Philippine Islands in 1565. It can be said that under these circumstances, ethnic intellectual systems were clandestine to the bloodline; cultural heritage then turned out primarily oral in fascinating epic chants.
In the 1919 writings of RF Barton Vol. 15, No. 1 states tradition had been handed down in pure oral medium. More so that the Ygolottes have complex spiritual beliefs and a well-developed customary law from family law to property law, penal law and procedure (Barton, 1919). The book of Gerard Finin takes up an elaborate explanation of political change during the American colonial rule, transitioning social and spatial relations across the Cordillera. At this point, and quite clearly, the Cordillera ethnic group was recognised to have distinct consciousness away the Filipino Christian or the Filipino Muslim (Finin, 2007).
Ybaloi Ethnic Intellectual System: The element of time
i. Time on a Yearly Basis. The essence of time for the Ybaloi ethnic group is an observation of lunar movements, similar that across other Asian countries. There are 13 full moons in a year and each year corresponds the various months of farming activity across the planting and harvest seasons as follows (Moss, 1920):
Sitonud is the time for planting rice in the fields in January Sikamas is the first time for weeding rice fields in February Kapinchuia kamas is a second time for weeding in March Inakawa'n obda a time between weeding and harvest of upil to May Siani the time to harvest in June Dapas has reference to a time following the harvest in July Sitonak a time for planting gabi in wet ground in August Sinapnap is a time for planting gabi on dry ground in September Sikatig is a time for trapping birds in October Siacharo is a time for ploughing in November Sipadag is a time for planting rice in seed beds in December
ii. Time on a daily basis. The essence of time in a day for the Ybaloi ethnic group has reference to human activity or movements of the sun throughout the day (Moss, 1920).
Daum - Time to make the first fires 3-5AM Palpalbang - Time for the sunrise 5-6AM Kakabasan - Time when breakfast is eaten 6-8AM Omonsiang - Time of middle morning 8-10AM Kasilan akou - Time when the sun is high 10-12AM Kaakawan - Time of middle of the day 12-4PM Nasbil i akou - Time when the sun is sinking 4-6PM Siti molan - Time for meal and feeding 4-6PM Mamachim - Time of sitting in the house 6-8PM Siditan ni ogip - Time for bed 8-10PM Adabas ni siditan ni ogip - Time past bed time 10-11PM Kawa ni adabi - Time in the middle of the night 11-12PM Akapasan ni adabi - Time after midnight 12-3PM
Modern science defines time as the infinite progression of existence (Merriam-Webster, 1828). Time is the element that connects the past into the future in the principle of eternal (Maudlin, 2007).
What is significant in the Ybaloi Ethnic Intellectual System is the element of time connects the world of mortals and the spirit world because time is infinite; in the same way a person is eternally connected to kin and ancestral land (refer to p.21, Ancestral domain). As such, the wisdom of the Ancestors sees unto the good life of generations next-by so the mortal soul invokes an ancestor for insight, if not the leadership to arrive at superior decisions that affect the future life as well as the present (Refer to p43, Ancestral authority). Clandestine to the bloodline is that the Ybaloi is raised to know the highest ancestry to the point that one principal ancestor connects a number of huge clans.
The element of time is the dimension to sit the baseline of the Ybaloi intellectual system because this is most basic and routinely, concise and measureable.
Ybaloi Ethnic Intellectual System: Ancestral Domain
In the perspective of the Ybaloi ethnic group, cultural landscape would mean Ancestral Domain. Cognizance of ancestral land is the authentic underlying principle that land cannot be owned as- Ancestral land is sacrosanct and anent ancestry, it is a shared resource constituting the baseline of all existence.
On international dimension, indigenous communities are defined as the distinct peoples and first nations that have historical continuity on a territory prior to invasion and colonial development. Ironically, first nations often form non-dominant segment of society determined to preserve and transmit to future generations these ancestral territories, and ethnic identity (Eder, 1994).
On national scale and by legal definition in Chapter II of the Philippines Republic Act No. 8371 of 1997 recognition and protection of cultural communities: Ancestral Domains refer to all areas generally belonging to ICCs/IPs comprising lands, inland waters, coastal areas, and natural resources therein, held under a claim of ownership, occupied or possessed by Indigenous Peoples, themselves or through their ancestors, communally or individually since time immemorial, continuously to the present except when interrupted by war, force majeure or displacement by force, deceit, stealth or as a consequence of government projects or any other voluntary dealings entered into by government and private individuals, corporations, and which are necessary to ensure their economic, social and cultural welfare. It shall include ancestral land, forests, pasture, residential, agricultural, and other lands individually owned whether alienable and disposable or otherwise, hunting grounds, burial grounds, worship areas, bodies of water, mineral and other natural resources, and lands which may no longer be exclusively occupied by Indigenous Peoples but from which their traditionally had access to for their subsistence and traditional activities, particularly the home ranges of Indigenous Peoples who are still nomadic and/or shifting cultivators (House of Senate, 1997).
Subsequently, the constitution of the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples institutionalised the protection of culture, such that: Within these ancestral domains the adherence of indigenous people's respective customs, beliefs, traditions, indigenous knowledge systems and practices, and the assertion of character and identity as peoples shall remain inviolable (National Commission on Indigenous Peoples, 1998).
Ybaloi Ethnic Intellectual System: Ancestral Authority Ancestor is defined as a person, archetypally more distant than a grandparent, from whom one is descended (Merriam-Webster, 1828). Strength in ancestry or connectivity to ancestry is universal to the majority of ethnic groups, which have not been influenced by the dominant religions of Moslem and Christianity. Such connectivity or strength in ancestry or ancestral worship is clearly the spiritual supremacy of the ancestor, or the comprehension that a mortal who has passed into the spirit world has authority and powers over own descendants. The precept is practiced in Africa, China, areas in Asia and the American Indian; including the Australian First Nations.
Azande ethic group occupies the geographical region of Africa-Equatorial in a life filled with mystic phenomena of ancestors capable of impelling mortals (Evans-Pritchard, 1937, p.39). Blackfoot ethnic group is located in the North American plains avow the spirit world can influence the mortals through a lady spirit, Mistina (McClintock, 1910). Cuna ethnic group performs rituals for spirits of ancestors who can cast misfortune, illness and death. The tribe is found at the South America-Circum-Caribbean region (Stout, 1947, pp.40-42).
Along the South American-Gran Chaco region rests the Lengua ethnic group who believes the ancestors could influence and interfere with the living (Metraux, 1963, p.333). An ethnic group known as the Lepcha occupying the Eurasia-Central Asia region adhere similarly that the nature of ancestors as deities whose cult is in the hands of shamans (von Furer-Haimendorf, 1987, p.327). The ethnic group living in the Oceania-Indonesia region is the Iban ethnic group; whose concept of the ancestor perceives a secret spirit helper, otherwise known as the ngarong, is an indication of ancestral authority on the mortal (Hose, 1912, p.92). Nez Perces ethnic group in the North America-Plateau territory recognises the Wyakin as the ancestor guardian spirit (Beal, 1966, p.12).
Sitting the North America-California region are the Pomo Indians who perform rituals for atonement of offenses against the ancestors, offering gifts (Bean, 1978). A vital part of Roman life in the Eurasia-Europe territory, is the feature of ancestor worship for the assertion of ancestral authority over the mortals (Fustel de Coulanges, 1956). Specifically the Ostyak Samoyed ethnic group living in the open Eurasia-Arctic Eurasia region are more given to ancestor worship with the grandfather of the clan thought as the superior god (Czaplicka, 1951, pp.172-77). Spanning the North America-Great Basin region is the territory of the Shoshoni ethnic group suggests the ancestors are spirits such as the Mungua that can take human form. These spirits are relied upon by mortals (Trenholm, 1964, p.35). Todas is an ethnic group residing the Eurasia-Greater India territory whose gods are associated with known persons, such as in the case of Kwoten whose life circumstance is so real is said to have a mysterious disappearance (Rivers, 1906, p.446). Winnebago is an ethnic group living in the North America-Prairie region whose ancestor beliefs include appearances in spirit in the course of communication (Radin, 1963, p.7).
In the Australia region the Arunta recognises the ancestral spirit or the Ulthana who can woe the living in dreams when displeased (Spencer, 1968, pp.494-97). An ethnic group residing the Guiana geographic territory is the Carib who has provided clear indication of interactions between ancestors and the mortals. Animal sacrifices are placed to care for the ancestor, and an evil spirit, the maboya can causes frightening occurrences when disagreeable or discontented (Rouse, 1963, p.559).
The Subarctic America region is home to the Carrier ethnic group who reports intervention of ancestor spirits and very strong bondage with the earthly existence (Morice, 1951, p.230). All the more with the Melanesia ethnic group, the Dobuans even speak directly with ancestor spirits for fortune and influence. It is thought that misfortune can only be attributed to black art or the ancestor spirit world (Fortune, 1932, p.99).
Iroquois ethnic group controls the eastern woodlands of North America, has a great number of ancestral spirits who are thought to take part in the daily activity and appearances in sleep. A number of feasts performed demonstrate respect for the ancestor (Burland, 1985, p.64). An ethnic group known as the Yagua represents the Amazonia. Recognition of ancestral authority jived with the concept that the souls of the dead are thought to dwell on specific location and return to the mortals during chicha, otherwise the feast, but occasionally play tricks on the living (Steward, 1963, pp.735-36).
Moreover the Yahgan ethnic group has distinct fear for the ancestor that a mortal being communicates through the shaman. The Supreme Being or Watauinewa revered as the most powerful (Cooper, 1963, p.102). Somewhere in California is the ethnic group the Yukots who dream of the ancestor; perform rituals of animal sacrifices and pray to the ancestor to ward off evil spirits (Wallace, 1978, p.453).
Ybaloi Ethnic Intellectual System: Kinship While the Cultural Landscape refers to the ancestral domain, inclusive of everything in it; community has its emphasis is on tribe and adheres to the practice of kinship. Kinship is defined as a relationship between members of a clan that brings out a feeling of closeness or similarity to other people (Cambridge Dictionary , 1533). Kinship is a connection by blood or marriage or adoption that establishes common bond whereas people care for another (Mantis, 2017). Kinship is used to characterise affection or the quality or state of being kin, such as next of kin (Merriam-Webster Incorporated, 1833). Kinship means family and shared history (Your Dictionary, 1996).
Specifically for the Ybaloi ethnic group, kinship is based on bloodline descends of common ancestry. While the study of Verzola (2007) describes the Ybaloi social structure in three: Middle class, the upper class and the lower class (Verzola, 2007). This descriptive illustrates the structure has evolved from the 1920s where the Ybaloi ethnic group is described to have only the wealthy or bacnang and the servants the abitug; wherein the growth of a strong middle class was predicted in the towns of Bokod and Kabayan.
For the Ybaloi ethnic group, kinship is an expression of shared responsibility and the shared-self if not symptomatic certain sense of duty. Strength in kinship was demonstrated very often in work as a shared responsibility, particularly in the earlier times when ditch building occupied all men, women and children in the construction of wooden troughs for irrigation (Moss, 1920)-strength in kinship has matured into a political sphere described by the structural functionalist as the stateless society, little else a hierarchical social organisation where the persistence of ancestral authority exists in the interface of family (Conte, 2009). More so with the recognition of ancestral domain wherein kinship dictates upon property laws that might be in conflict the state fostered legal and court procedures (Wiber, 1993).
It is sufficient to define kinship to have evolved specific mythology where the concept of deity intertwines the power of the spirit world which are in fact mortal beings of past. Such rationality is very similar across ethnic groups of Japan, China, Philippines, Iran and Indonesia (Bonnefoy, 1993).
The Shaman known in the dialect as mambunong is the powerful pontifical who administered in a ritual and mediated the relations the deities and the kinship. Up to now the mambunong holds a special function and receives great importance.