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Rafflesia Banaoana: Distinct Species of World's Largest Flower Found in Cordillera

Botanists from Oxford and UPLB reinstate Rafflesia Banaoana in Kalinga, Cordillera, affirming its distinction as a unique species.

 |  4 min read

Explore the botanical breakthrough as researchers from the University of Oxford Botanic Garden and the University of the Philippines Los Banos reinstate Rafflesia banaoana in Kalinga, Cordillera, highlighting its distinction as a unique species.

In a botanical breakthrough, researchers from the University of Oxford Botanic Garden and the University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB) have unearthed a distinct species of Rafflesia, the world's largest flower, nestled in the lush landscapes of Kalinga province in the Cordillera region. This revelation, detailed in a recently published paper by Phytotaxa, sheds light on the intricacies of biodiversity in the Philippines.

Rafflesia banaoana found in Kalinga, Cordillera Region Photos: OGBA

Unraveling the Mystery of Rafflesia Banaoana

Initially documented in 2010 by Professor Pastor Malabrigo Jr., Rafflesia banaoana captivated the scientific community with its rare and unpredictable appearances. The plant, reaching an impressive half-meter in diameter, had been erroneously intertwined with another species, R. leonardi. However, a meticulous examination of overlooked characteristics has definitively distinguished the two, expanding the roster of Rafflesia species in the Philippines to fifteen.

"Our work makes a case for the careful observation of previously unexamined characters, as well as ecology, to avoid overlooking similar but distinct species," emphasizes Adriane Tobias, a forester and Rafflesia expert at UPLB.

Rafflesia banaoana illustrated by Dr Chris Thorogood

The Challenging Expedition and Botanical Significance

The journey to rediscover Rafflesia banaoana was no small feat, as Professor Malabrigo Jr. recalls, "I knew the plant was special, the moment I saw it. It takes a long and grueling trek through impenetrable forest to reach the plant; few people have ever set eyes on it." This underscores not only the uniqueness of the find but also the dedication required for botanical exploration, particularly in the face of habitat destruction.

Rafflesia, renowned for hosting the world's largest flowers, holds botanical significance that extends beyond its sheer size. The rarity and unpredictability of R. banaoana's blooming patterns add an element of mystique to this enigmatic genus.

Collaborative Research for a Sustainable Future

The collaborative efforts between the University of Oxford Botanic Garden and UPLB signify the importance of international cooperation in advancing scientific understanding. Dr. Chris Thorogood, Deputy Director and Head of Science at Oxford Botanic Garden, emphasizes, "It's such a privilege to be involved in this work with my friends and colleagues at UPLB. Understanding the diversity of these extraordinary plants has never been more crucial at a time of unprecedented habitat destruction and species extinction."

Future Directions and the Essence of Biodiversity Preservation

As the Oxford-Los Baños team continues its explorations across Southeast Asia, the commitment to unraveling the complexities of species limits, ecology, and evolution within the world's largest flowers remains unwavering. This research not only contributes to the scientific understanding of a specific species but also underscores the broader significance of preserving biodiversity in the face of environmental challenges.


The rediscovery and reinstatement of Rafflesia banaoana stand as a testament to the resilience of scientific exploration. This distinct species, once overshadowed by confusion, now proudly joins the ranks of the diverse flora in the Philippines.

The collaborative efforts between international institutions not only enrich our understanding of the natural world but also highlight the urgency of preserving unique plant species amidst the growing threats of habitat loss and extinction.

As we delve deeper into the intricacies of botanical wonders, the importance of conservation becomes increasingly evident, ensuring that these extraordinary plants continue to captivate and inspire generations to come.


1. What distinguishes Rafflesia banaoana from other species in the Cordillera region?
The distinct characteristics of Rafflesia banaoana, reinstated by Oxford-UPLB, set it apart, contributing to the region's biodiversity.

2. How did researchers from the University of Oxford Botanic Garden and UPLB confirm Rafflesia banaoana as a unique species?
Through meticulous examination of previously overlooked traits, researchers established Rafflesia banaoana's distinct identity, enriching our botanical understanding.

3. Why is the rediscovery of Rafflesia banaoana significant in the field of botany?
The rediscovery expands the known biodiversity in Cordillera, providing valuable insights into the world's largest flowers and their ecological roles.

4. What challenges did the Oxford-UPLB team face during their expeditions in Southeast Asia?
The team encountered arduous treks through impenetrable forests, emphasizing the dedication required for botanical exploration amidst habitat destruction threats.

5. How does the reinstatement of Rafflesia banaoana contribute to global conservation efforts?
By accurately identifying and documenting unique species, the reinstatement aids in recognizing and preserving biodiversity, crucial in the face of species extinction challenges.

6. What role does international collaboration play in botanical research, as demonstrated by Oxford-UPLB?
Collaboration fosters a deeper understanding of diverse flora, as seen in the joint efforts of Oxford Botanic Garden and UPLB in unraveling the mysteries of Rafflesia species.

7. How does the unpredictability of Rafflesia banaoana's blooming pattern impact its study and conservation?
The rarity and unpredictability pose challenges in studying this species, underscoring the need for continued research to develop effective conservation strategies.

8. What are the implications of Rafflesia banaoana's reinstatement on local communities in Kalinga?
Local communities are acknowledged for their role in discovering and preserving Rafflesia banaoana, showcasing the importance of community involvement in biodiversity conservation.

9. How can individuals contribute to the conservation of unique plant species like Rafflesia banaoana?
Supporting conservation initiatives, raising awareness, and participating in sustainable practices are ways individuals can contribute to the preservation of unique plant species.

10. What future research directions are planned by the Oxford-UPLB collaboration in Southeast Asia?
The team aims to enhance scientists' understanding of species limits, ecology, and evolution within the world's largest flowers through ongoing collaborative research in Southeast Asia.

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